With the revival of Jewish life in Jerusalem on early 20th Century and the popularity of Arts and Crafts movement, an art school was established in Jerusalem under the name Bezalel. Bezalel is the Biblical name of the Devine “Artist” who executed the design of the Ark and the sanctuary built by Israelites, following the Egyptian exodus.
Between the years of 1906 and 1931 many, vintage and antique Jerusalem Bezalel rugs were made in this school with mostly Jewish motifs and Art Nouveau styles. This workshop was called “Marvadiah” (Marvad in Hebrew means carpet) and many of these rugs are inscribed either Bezalel or Marvadiah. Since the practice of carpet weaving started there under the Ottoman Empire, the construction and the color pallet of these rugs resembles many Anatolian rugs of the period.
Bezalel rugs and carpets were produced in the earlier twentieth century as part of a new art school for Jewish immigrants in what was then British-ruled Palestine. Founded by Boris Schatz from Bulgaria in conjunction with Zionist pioneer Theodore Herzl, the school and its workshop in Jerusalem were intended to provide an artistic outlet for Jewish artists, and to encourage them to fuse their European traditions with those of their oriental homeland. True to this inspiration, the Bezalel rug workshop drew upon a wide range of Oriental rug designs, while often exploring folk art traditions from the west as well, but always adhering to a high artistic and technical standard.
Jewish artists do not normally come to mind when thinking of antique Oriental rugs, however that is exactly who made Bezalel rugs. These carpets were woven at the Bezalel Academy which operated from 1906 to 1929 in British-ruled Palestine. The Jewish arts-and-crafts movement inspired a wide range of unique rugs, often with religious themes.
Bezalel rugs woven in Israel often have Holy Land themes and display a blend of Jewish, Persian, Turkish and European styles. The construction and warm color pallet of Bezalel rugs resemble many Anatolian rugs of the Ottoman Dynasty.
The Bezalel Academy was established by Bulgarian Boris Schatz and Zionist pioneer Theodore Herzl with the goal of creating a distinctly Jewish art style with European and Middle Eastern influences to depict the Jewish experience. The school was named for the Biblical artist, Bezalel, who designed the Ark and the Israeli sanctuary after the Egyptian exodus of Israelites.
The school encouraged Jewish artists to draw motivation from their European customs while including influences from their Oriental motherland to create quality pieces of art. The result was a large body of work including paintings, wood and metal works, etchings and carpets with a distinctly Jewish flair.
The carpets were created by Jewish artists at the school or its workshop in Jerusalem with high technical and artistic standards. The Bezalel rug workshop employed a variety of Oriental designs and often found inspiration in western folk art traditions. The workshop was called Marbediah from “Marvard”, the Hebrew word for carpet. These antique rugs are inscribed either Bezalel or Marvadiah.